Vapor adpots DPOS+BBFT mechanism. It achieves consensus with voter (Voter), consensus node (Delegate) and leader node (Leader) to organize the network. First, Delegate is voted through DPoS, and then the Delegate achieve consensus efficiently by a unique BFT model.
Vapor Neuron Relay (VNR), based on the UDP and Forward Error Correction ( FEC ) protocol , can transport block header, compacted transaction ID and transaction information that are not available to some peer nodes. The receiving node will attempt to use the information received, and the transaction in the local memory pool (Memory Pool) to reconstruct the entire block.
Based on BUTXO protocol, Vapor can verify blocks in parallel in multiple threads. The Parallel Sliding Windows Validation algorithm (PSWV) can synchronizes hundreds of blocks simultaneously and obtains all its inputs. The block batch forms a verification window and the algorithm verifier slides to verify the validity of the block transaction in the window.
The local KV database like LevelDB and RocksDB, which are commonly used by the public chain, is replaced by a more powerful database interface to meet the needs of MySQL , PostgreSQL, MongoDB and other enterprise-level databases. In addition to the needs of data analysis, the storage layer is compatible with HDFS, HIVE , and integration into the Hadoop or Spark ecosystem.
The principle of DPoS is to let each token-holder of the currency vote to select a certain number of delegates, or a certain number of representative nodes. These representative nodes can complete the transaction verification and block production work. Holders can change these representatives at any time by voting to maintain the “long-term purity” and ensure that the agreement is properly decentralized.
In the incumbent blockchain model, the DPoS consensus is only used for the account model. The combination of the UTXO model and DPoS also has many additional advantages. The UTXO model is a way to storage for transaction storage, organization and verification; DPoS is a consensus algorithm used to ensure that participants in a distributed network can achieve consensus regarding transaction data.
A derived consensu based on PBFT
Modular, pluggable design, on-demand configuration, and to a certain extent, compatibility with new technologies ( Future-Proof ).
BBFT provides stable execution efficiency for different network environments. In BBFT, the consensus node maintains the current network topology, and the nodes with similar shortest path principles take priority communication, and the aggregation of communication can further reduce the delay. At the same time the role of the leader node (Leader) is weakened. The entire network consensus is not seriously impacted even when the communication with leader nodes are jammed.
BBFT ensures that consensus complexity increases along with network capacity linearly or sub-linearly. Combined with the network topology, the network can be divided into multiple layers, message data can be effectively shared in the same layer, and spread across layers in the form of multi-signal aggregation.
Verification and communication of consensus are separated. Adopting a low-coupling consensus framework can further improve the reliability and efficiency of the network. One of the advantages of heterogeneity is to do the best things with the best tools. Verification and communication are allowed to run on different systems. In different operating environments, the power of hardware-based hashrate and the Trust Zone are combined to maximize performance.
Vapor can reach tens of thousands TPS, and the throughput can reach more than one million by extended scaling. It can fully meet enterprise-level needs. The average block speed is about 0.5 seconds. Vapor compresses transactions to reduce block sizes, hence reducing bandwidth and allowing all nodes to synchronize blocks faster.
Vapor uses the DPoS+BBFT consensus algorithm to provide high-availability Byzantine fault tolerance, automatic recovery of consensus state, mutual recovery of blockchain data, automatic equalization of data storage,and automatic routing of node services, thereby ensuring the security and stability of the network itself. Mainchain-sidechain isolation and sidechain-sidechain isolation ensure.
Vapor offers a full range of privacy protection with a combination of encryption algorithms. High configurability ensures flexibility and adapts to different user scenarios. It can be applied to privacy protection and privacy contract.
Bancor is a decentralized liquidity network that provides users with a simple, low-cost way to buy and sell tokens. Bystack 's Bancor protocol allows multiple assets (such as business royalty, multiple digital assets) to be converted quickly, cost-effectively and efficiently.